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New AI technique accurately represents uncertainty in medical images | MIT News

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In Short:

A new AI tool called Tyche has been developed by researchers at MIT, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, and Massachusetts General Hospital for medical image segmentation. Tyche can provide multiple plausible segmentations in medical images, highlighting different areas. The tool can be used without needing retraining, making it easier and faster for clinicians and researchers to use. Tyche aims to improve diagnoses and biomedical research by addressing ambiguity in medical images.

New AI Tool Tyche Introduced to Address Ambiguity in Medical Image Segmentation

In the field of biomedicine, segmentation plays a crucial role in annotating pixels of significant structures in medical images, such as organs or cells. Artificial intelligence models have been developed to assist clinicians in identifying pixels that may indicate signs of diseases or anomalies within these images.

Understanding the Problem

Despite the advancements in AI, medical image segmentation remains a challenging task due to the inherent ambiguity in interpreting these images. Different human annotators often provide varied segmentations for the same image, highlighting the complexity of the process.

Introducing Tyche

A team of researchers from MIT, the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, and Massachusetts General Hospital has introduced a new AI tool named Tyche to address this issue. Named after the Greek divinity of chance, Tyche is designed to provide multiple plausible segmentations for a given medical image, allowing users to select the most appropriate one for their specific requirements.

Unlike traditional models, Tyche can adapt to new segmentation tasks without the need for retraining, making it more accessible for clinicians and researchers in the biomedical field.

Enhancing Diagnoses and Research

By capturing uncertainty in medical images, Tyche aims to improve diagnoses and aid in biomedical research by highlighting crucial information that other AI tools may overlook. This system has the potential to revolutionize the way medical image segmentation is approached.

Technical Details

Tyche is built on a modified neural network architecture that allows it to output multiple segmentation options based on the input image and a context set. The system can generate diverse predictions while ensuring they are different from one another, enhancing the accuracy of results.

Research Findings and Future Plans

Initial tests of Tyche have demonstrated its ability to produce accurate and diverse segmentations, outperforming existing models in terms of efficiency and quality. The researchers plan to further explore the capabilities of Tyche and optimize its performance in future studies.

This research is supported by funding from the National Institutes of Health, the Eric and Wendy Schmidt Center at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, and Quanta Computer.

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